Medically the evaluation by Valinda Riggins Nwadike, MD, MPH — written by Lori Smith, MSN, BSN, WHNP-BC — to update on might 4, 2020

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Chlamydia is a sexually sent bacterial infection. That affects both males and also females who contract it throughout sexual contact.


According come the Centers for an illness Control and also Prevention (CDC), there were about 1.8 million cases of chlamydia in the United states in 2018. That is the most usual sexually sent infection (STI) in the U.S.

Chlamydia frequently produces no symptoms, yet it deserve to lead to fertility problems. However, efficient treatment is available.

In this article, we will comment on the symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and also treatment of chlamydia.


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Most world with chlamydia execute not notification any symptoms. Follow to study cited through the CDC, only around 10% of males and also 5–30% of females experience symptoms.

It is additionally unclear how long that takes for symptoms come appear, yet it may be numerous weeks.

In females

In females, symptom of chlamydia may include:

a discharge native the cervixeasy bleedingfrequent or painful urination

If chlamydia spreads to the uterus and the fallopian tubes, it can an outcome in pelvic inflammatory an illness (PID). This, too, may not produce symptoms. However, that can impact fertility.

In males

In males, symptom may incorporate pain, tenderness, and also swelling in the testicles or the urethra, the tube that carries urine.

Males and also females

Both males and also females may construct symptoms in the rectum and anus. The virus have the right to infect these locations during anal sex or by dispersing from the reproductive organs.

Symptoms include:

rectal painrectal discharge or bleeding

Contact through infected secretions can also lead come chlamydial conjunctivitis (pink eye).

Laboratory test have found chlamydia in the throat of civilization who have had oral sex with someone who has actually the infection. However, this does no usually develop symptoms.


Anyone who has actually or doubt they have actually chlamydia must seek therapy to avoid long-term health consequences, consisting of infertility and ectopic pregnancy.

Doctors will frequently prescribe antibiotics to treat chlamydia. A human being will generally take antibiotics as a pill.

The united States preventive Services Task force (USPSTF) recommend retesting at least every 3 months after treatment, depending upon the individual’s danger factors.

Antibiotics

Examples the antibiotics for chlamydia include:

Azithromycin: A solitary 1-gram (g) dose.Doxycycline: 100 milligrams (mg) twice everyday for 7 daysOfloxacin: 300–400 mg when or twice everyday for 7 days

Other medication choices include erythromycin and amoxicillin. A doctor may prescribe one of these throughout pregnancy.

Adverse impacts can periodically occur, including:

abdominal painvaginal thrush

Doxycycline have the right to sometimes trigger a skin rashes if a human being spends time in the sun.

In many cases, the side results will be mild. Anyone who experiences significant adverse results should contact their medical care provider. Carry out not protect against taking the medication without first checking v a doctor.

According come one source, a course of antibiotics resolves chlamydia in 95% the cases. However, the is necessary to follow the doctor’s instructions and complete the entirety course the treatment.

Other aspects of treatment

The CDC introduce that people with chlamydia stop from sex because that 7 days:

after a single-dose treatmentwhile they finish a 7-day food of antibiotics

If a person has actually a diagnosis of chlamydia, they have to inform any kind of partners they have had actually sexual contact within the previous 60 work so the they, too, can seek testing and also treatment.

If one companion does not receive treatment or go not finish the course of treatment, over there is a danger of reinfection or transmitting the virus to someone else.

Sometimes, a doctor may likewise be treated because that gonorrhea since the bacteria that cause the two infections regularly occur together.


To diagnose chlamydia, a doctor may carry out an check to look because that physical symptom such as discharge.

They will additionally take either a pee sample or a swab sample indigenous the penis, cervix, urethra, throat, or rectum.

Chlamydia screening

As chlamydial infection generally presents no symptoms, health and wellness authorities frequently recommend screening for some people.

The USPSTF recommend screening for:

sexually active females under 25 year of agepregnant ladies who space under 25 years or enlarge if in ~ high riskmales who space in a high-risk groupmen who have sex with males annually and also every 3–6 months if they room at high risk

How is chlamydia screening done?

A person deserve to test for chlamydia at home or in the lab. They have the right to take one of two people a urine sample or a swab.

Females have the right to take a swab, location it in a container, and also send it to a laboratory.Males will typically use a pee test.

A doctor deserve to advise people on the ideal option. Lock may additionally recommend rectal or neck testing, especially for people who space living through HIV.

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Home screening tests space available, yet it is not always easy to perform them properly at home. A medical care provider will normally recommend following up on any type of home tests by visiting a doctor’s office.

The person will most likely need to administer a pee sample because that a check to confirm a diagnosis. ~ treatment, castle will should retake the test to ensure that the treatment has actually worked.

If anyone wishes to shot home testing, chlamydia screening test kit are easily accessible for purchase online.