More than 1.2 million people in the US space living v an HIV infection. The is approximated that 1 in 8 carry out not recognize they space infected. With 50,000 new infections each year, part doctors allude to a absence of testing and also misconceptions around the virus together a serious problem. How does the virus spread? that is susceptible? deserve to HIV-positive females still have actually children? For civilization AIDS Day, The border speaks with Dr. Adam Spivak, one HIV specialist, around the usual misconceptions around HIV/AIDS.
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Interviewer: Misconceptions and also misunderstandings about HIV AIDS up following on The Scope.
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Interviewer: for this reason we"re right here with Dr. Adam Spivak. He is an assistant professor in the institution of Medicine and a specialist in HIV. What we"re talking about today is some of the misconceptions. Also in 2016 we"ve learned so much about the virus and also what the means, but some of these misconceptions still room out there. So, let"s go ahead and also cover several of these. What about transmission? Like, deserve to you get HIV indigenous kissing an additional person or emotional them or sit on a toilet seat or few of those old type of . . .
Dr. Spivak: HIV is transmitted mainly sexually, and it can additionally betransfer with blood. It can not betransfer with saliva, with casual contact, share a toilet chair in a public bathroom, share food with someone who is HIV infected. Nobody of these are at all put anybody at risk.
Interviewer: however those stigmas did exist once, right? due to the fact that they must"ve come from somewhere.
Dr. Spivak: five absolutely, absolutely, and also of food in the beforehand days when AIDS was an initial described in the beforehand 1980s we didn"t actually also know what caused it. That took two years. It to be not until 1983 that a novel retrovirus, HIV, was uncovered as the reason of AIDS. For this reason you can imagine a disease that was causing such major illness and deaths and you don"t understand what reasons it. We didn"t also know totally that it was an epidemic for those first couple of years the a lot of stigma, a many stories circulate, and also certainly those are an effective and have a means to persist.
Interviewer: among the various other misconceptions at least historically that might still kind of linger on this particular day is you just see several of these old news clippings or this old photographs and also things choose that where human being are introduce to HIV and AIDS together a happy disease, together a gay cancer or something favor that. We"re starting to discover out the that"s not true.
Dr. Spivak: Yeah, no, no, no. Worldwide HIV is transmitted sexually actually with heterosexual sex together the predominant form of HIV transmission. In the beforehand days again populations that seemed to it is in hardest struggle were gay men, males who have actually sex through men, injection medicine users, sex workers, and also interestingly enough human being of Haitian descent. However again, that has actually persisted along with the recognition of the at an early stage spread that AIDS amongst gay men as this population to be shunned. Of course when we"re talking about the 1980s we"re talking around a team that was an extremely much discriminated versus that felt an extremely marginalized. Regrettably a brand-new disease, a lethal disease, a disease of unknown origin that appeared to be spreading choose wildfire had actually the impact of amplifying a the majority of those frankly prejudices the were currently present in society.
Interviewer: What around HIV confident women who could be worried around whether or not they can ever have kids or it is in pregnant? What are some of the misconceptions about that?
Dr. Spivak: one of the real highlights, among the glowing spots through regard to avoidance of HIV infection is mother to kid transmission. What we have actually learned through a variety of really fine done studies and also now countless years the clinical practice is that pregnant women with HIV who space started top top anti-retroviral treatment on the therapy for HIV really carry out not happen on HIV to their infants. We recognize that even a solitary dose that the medicines offered at the moment of distribution can mitigate transmission from mother to child. It appears as finest we recognize it that HIV transmits at the time of delivery. Even just a sheep or two doses that the medication at that time is a very powerful preventative. Us go a couple of steps further than that and also get mom totally treated, and also in those situations transmission from mom to child is practically unheard of in the united States and Europe wherein we do this on a constant basis today, therefore a genuine bright spot in regards to HIV prevention.
Interviewer: What about some that the ideas and maybe stigmas that the condition is a fatality sentence, the if you catch it your life"s over?
Dr. Spivak: when AIDS was very first described in the 1980s up till the mid-1990s, we did not have actually reliable treatment and this regularly was a cause of fatality in folks that were otherwise young and healthy and also in the element of their lives. The stigma, the stereotype, the ide that HIV AIDS is a fatality sentence certainly has its root in truth. However, it"s 2016. Starting in the mid-1990s together we"ve discussed, 1995, "96, the advent of what we call mix anti-retroviral therapy, brand-new drugs fight the market. It"s tho what we usage today. These space fabulous therapies for HIV. Ours patients room living long healthy and balanced lives. They have to take the medicines every day.Untreated absolutely the is damaging to the immune system. It leads to what we speak to opportunistic infections and ultimately come death. We witnessed that very graphically in the very first decade and also a fifty percent of this illness. However, what us see today with patients that room able come come in come our clinic, get accessibility to care, take it their medications on a constant basis is that they are leading long, healthy, fertile lives and also are act fabulously well.
Interviewer: What"s one of the top things that you would imply for civilization to have done on this people AIDS Day?
Dr. Spivak: five absolutely ns think the most important thing that people can carry out is gain tested. Ns say that due to the fact that the vast majority of the united States population has never had an HIV test. Currently most world may no be actively at risk for HIV which is to say they"re no practicing unsafe sex, they may not it is in injecting drugs, yet we do know and also there"ve been a number of studies that have presented that there are quite a number of people living today who have HIV who room not diagnosed. That"s a tragedy top top a variety of fronts. We"ve talked about the capability to get these people treated. It ultimately will affect their health. They"re additionally at great risk of dispersing the disease.So, i think the test we have for HIV is one of the best diagnostic exam in contemporary medicine. It"s incredibly accurate. A an adverse test in the setting of who who"s no at risk for HIV is really reassuring. It sit on their medical chart and they never require to acquire tested again. We"re trying to get most people from zero come one to gain tested. Of food the couple of folks who might have been at risk in the previous or tho practicing high risk habits with regard come HIV, and we"re maybe to determine them and also diagnose them v HIV, we"re yes, really going to be able to not only aid them but help potentially partners assist them from spreading the disease.
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