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Every day almost three million people in the United claims are getting the Covid-19 vaccine. And also every brand-new jab prompts new questions around what to expect after vaccination.

Last week ns asked readers to send me their questions about vaccinations. Right here are part answers.

Q: i’ve heard the Covid vaccine next effects, particularly after the 2nd dose, deserve to be really bad. Should I be worried?

Short-lived side impacts like fatigue, headache, muscle aches and fever are much more common after ~ the 2nd dose of both the Pfizer-BioNTech and the Moderna vaccines, which each need two shots. (The Johnson & Johnson vaccine requires only a single shot.) patients who experience unpleasant side results after the 2nd dose often describe feeling as if they have a negative flu and also use phrases like “it flattened me” or “I to be useless for 2 days.” throughout vaccine studies, patients were advised to schedule a few days off work-related after the 2nd dose just in case they needed to spend a job or two in bed.

Data gathered from v-safe, the smartphone-based device everyone is encouraged to usage to track side effects after vaccination, also show boost in report side effects after the second dose. For instance, about 29 percent of civilization reported exhaustion after the an initial Pfizer-BioNTech shot, but that jumped to 50 percent after the 2nd dose. Muscle pain increased from 17 percent after the very first shot come 42 percent after the second. If only about 7 percent of world got chills and also fever after ~ the very first dose, that enhanced to about 26 percent after the second dose.

The brand-new York time interviewed numerous dozen the the newly vaccinated in the work afterward. They recounted a vast spectrum that responses, from no reaction at every to symptoms choose uncontrolled shivering and also “brain fog.” While these experiences no pleasant, they are a authorize that your very own immune mechanism is mounting a potent response to the vaccine.

Q: Is the true that ladies are an ext likely to get worse side impacts from the vaccine 보다 men?

An analysis from the first 13.7 million Covid-19 vaccine doses offered to Americans uncovered that side effects were more common in women. And while significant reactions to the Covid vaccine are rare, virtually all the situations of anaphylaxis, or life-threatening allergy reactions, occurred in women.

The finding that women are much more likely to report and also experience uncomfortable side effects to the Covid vaccine is regular with other vaccines as well. Women and girls can develop up to double as many antibodies after receiving flu shots and also vaccines because that measles, mumps and also rubella (M.M.R.) and also hepatitis A and B. One study discovered that over almost three decades, females accounted because that 80 percent of every adult anaphylactic reactions to vaccines.

While the true that women may be more likely to report side impacts than men, the greater rate that side effects in women likewise has a biological explanation. Estrogen can stimulate an immune response, whereas testosterone can blunt it. In addition, numerous immune-related genes are on the X chromosome, of i beg your pardon women have actually two copies and also men have only one. These distinctions may aid explain why far more women than guys are afflicted through autoimmune disease, i beg your pardon occurs as soon as a durable immune solution attacks the body’s healthy tissue. You can read much more about women and vaccine side results here.

Q: ns didn’t have any side effects. Go that typical my immune device didn’t respond and the vaccine isn’t working?

Side results get all the attention, but if girlfriend look at the data from vaccine clinical trials and the genuine world, you’ll watch that many world don’t experience any side effects past a sore arm. In the Pfizer vaccine trials, around one the end of 4 patients reported no next effects. In the Moderna trials, 57 percent of patient (64 or younger) report side results after the an initial dose — the jumped to 82 percent after the 2nd dose, which way almost one in 5 patients reported no reaction after the second shot.

A lack of side effects does not typical the vaccine isn’t working, said Dr. Paul Offit, a professor at the university of Pennsylvania and also a member that the Food and Drug Administration’s vaccine advisory panel. Dr. Offit provided that during the vaccine trials, a far-reaching number of people didn’t report side effects, and also yet the trials verified 95 percent efficacy. “That proves girlfriend don’t need to have side results in order to it is in protected,” he said.

Nobody really knows why some human being have a most side effects and also others have none. We do recognize that younger human being mount stronger immune responses come vaccines 보다 older people, who immune systems gain weaker through age. Women commonly have more powerful immune responses than men. However again, these distinctions don’t median that you aren’t protected if you nothing feel lot after gaining the shot.

Scientists quiet aren’t sure how efficient the vaccines space in human being whose immune systems may be weakened from certain medical conditions, such as cancer therapies or H.I.V. Epidemic or since they room taking immune suppressing drugs. However most experts think the vaccines still offer these patients some protection versus Covid-19.

The bottom heat is that even though separation, personal, instance immune responses deserve to vary, the data gathered so far present that all 3 vaccines authorized in the United states — Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson — space effective versus severe illness and also death indigenous Covid-19.

Q: ns took Tylenol before I had my Covid vaccine shots and had very tiny reaction come the shots. Did ns make a large mistake?

You shouldn’t try to stave off discomfort by acquisition a pains reliever prior to getting the shot. The worry is the premedicating v a pain reliever choose acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), which have the right to prevent side impacts like eight soreness as well as fever or headache, might likewise blunt her body’s immune response.

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While it’s feasible that acquisition a ache reliever before your shots might have dampened her body’s immune response, vaccine specialists say you shouldn’t worry, and you shouldn’t shot to gain a new round of replacement shots. Studies of other vaccines indicate that if premedicating can dull the body immune an answer to a vaccine, your immune system have the right to still mountain a solid enough defense to fight infection. A review of researches of much more than 5,000 children compared antibody levels in children who take it pain relievers before and after vaccinations and also those who did not. They uncovered that ache relievers did not have actually a meaningful affect on immune response, and also that children in both groups produced adequate levels of antibodies after their shots.

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The high efficacy of all the Covid vaccines argues that even if taking Tylenol prior to the shoot did dull your body’s immune response, there’s part wiggle room, and you are likely still fine protected against Covid-19. “You should feel reassured that you’ll have enough of one immune an answer that you’ll will certainly be protected, especially for vaccines that room this good,” said Dr. Offit.

Q: What about taking a pain reliever ~ the shot?

“It’s OK come treat” side effects with a pains reliever, stated Dr. Offit, but if you nothing really need one, “don’t take it.”