Thomas Caldwell was a veteran in his 60s through a soft physique, oval glasses, no income, and also a background of psychological illness. “I’ve been schizophrenic every my life, hear voices,” he once said in a courtroom. He didn’t have actually a patent to offer firearms, yet that hadn’t quit him. In 2015, follow to prosecutors, police uncovered a Glock in a Milwaukee drug house and quickly attached it come him. The purchased it just the day before.

Months later, one agent with the office of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and also Explosives (ATF) faced Caldwell around the pistol. Follow to the ATF, he stated he had actually been purchasing weapons from a license is granted dealer, climate reselling numerous of them with Armslist.com, a website the connects sellers through buyers looking for anything indigenous a pistol to an AR-15.

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If Caldwell wanted to offer guns, the ATF warned him, there to be a proper way to execute it. There is no obtaining a federal guns license, he to be breaking the law and potentially putting weapons into the hand of criminals.

Caldwell no listen, and he controlled to rotate flipping guns into a substantial business, prosecutors later said. Between December 2015 and also May 2018, the made cash deposits right into his financial institution account totaling much more than $19,000, every from gun sales. Also after his early run-in v authorities, he maintained up the exercise for years. In 2017, Madison police uncovered a Taurus 9mm pistol during an investigation, then traced it back to a acquisition Caldwell had actually made 2 weeks before.

Eventually, the ATF uncovered that 11 firearms recovered by police during investigations had actually been to buy by Caldwell. Due to the fact that the ATF’s 2015 warning, he’d bought 95 handguns and 11 rifles from 57 different sellers. Caldwell posted more than 200 listings for guns on the website, according to prosecutors, sometimes explicitly noting the weapons were brand-new and also unfired.


According come prosecutors, he had said the a patent was “too much paperwork”

Officials believed the brief “time come crime” — the gap between a sale and when that recovered in ~ a crime step — supposed Caldwell had come to be a known source for criminals. A prosecutor would later on say a tragedy to be “inevitable.” as the Chicago Tribune listed last year, authorities declined to speak why he wasn’t charged much earlier.

Two year after he very first came come the attention of the ATF, agents organized an undercover sting, buying a Walther .40-caliber pistol indigenous Caldwell on Armslist. However while Caldwell to be still under investigation, he sold a weapon top top Armslist and, months later, the gun in which method arrived in Chicago. When it did, Police command Paul Bauer responded to a speak to in the Loop and caught up through a suspect. In the struggle that followed, Bauer to be shot 6 times and killed with the gun.

Caldwell, according to the ATF, explained selling weapons as one addiction. Police enforcement a find warrant top top his home and also uncovered 44 guns as castle kept building their case. Owning a lot of firearms is not in chin a crime, and undeterred, Caldwell sold an additional gun to an undercover investigator ~ above Armslist a month later.

He pleaded guilty to illegal selling guns in 2018, almost three year after an initial being warned through the ATF. According to prosecutors, he had actually said the a patent was “too much paperwork.”

Caldwell isn’t the only constant user of Armslist. Over the years, the website has come to be a significant destination for firearm buyers and also sellers. The site can be used legally, and its regards to use explicitly straight users to monitor applicable weapons laws. Critics, however, to speak the site’s operators have actually taken a hands-off approach to moderating the contents on your platform that fuels violence and enables private sellers to bypass gaining a federal firearms license.

Law enforcement encounters legal barriers to policing rogue sellers choose Caldwell, yet the regulation has likewise put Armslist itself the end of reach. The very same legal protections supposed to help the internet prosper have likewise ensured the weapons keep flowing.

“To protect the an excellent actors, you need to write a conventional that enables people to it is in pretty disastrous actors too,” says James Grimmelmann, professor of legislation at Cornell University. “The an obstacle is how do you identify the great from the disastrous actors.”

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Under commonwealth law, the legal for world to sell guns without a background check. It’s only once they come to be “engaged in the business” the selling weapons that castle are required by regulation to acquire a patent from the ATF and run checks on every sale.

So when does selling guns turn from a hobby into a full-fledged organization enterprise? It’s daunting to tell. One human might, for example, inherit dozens that antiques and also sell them there is no issue. But an additional person could buy a handful of weapons from a registered seller, upper and lower reversal them in exclusive sales without conducting lift checks, and be deemed engaged in the business.

Executive plot made throughout the 2nd term that the Obama presidency were an alleged to tighten the definition of “engaging in the business.” lock state the those “who use the net or other technologies must acquire a license, just as a dealer whose service is run out of a timeless brick-and-mortar store.” at the time, critics argued that the actions to be “legally meaningless” and also that they price to little much more than “political theater.”

“The president and also Congress often charge governmental agencies with very broad and ambitious tasks, and they rarely administer sufficient resources to actually lug them out,” claimed Timothy Lytton, a identified professor of regulation at Georgia State university who specializes in security regulation and also gun violence.

The faint of federal legislation — and the fact it is rarely implemented — leaves it open up to exploitation. And Armslist is house to numerous sellers whose activity falls in a gray area.

The Verge and The Trace scraped much more than 2 million Armslist listings from December 2016 through March 2019 to identify users who might be skirting the regulation through high-volume sales.


“If who calls you up and says, ‘Hey, I’d favor to buy a gun,’ girlfriend should be able to check if the person have the right to have a gun”

We searched the text of listings because that phone numbers and isolated the numbers that appeared most frequently. Armslist motivates users to communicate through direct messages top top the website, but some sellers may include direct contact information in their posts.

We identified much more than 700 phone number that appeared in 10 or more listings. The many used phone number belonged come a seller in south Carolina who was connected with much more than 300 listings ~ above Armslist during the period of time spanned by our scraping. (The user refuse posting ads on the site, but confirmed your phone number, which was included as contact information on each ad.) Thirty-eight various other phone numbers appeared in 50 or an ext posts ~ above the site.

To identify if sellers were licensed to command sales, we compared the contact information in the ads against the publicly accessible list the federal firearms licenses, which has registered sellers’ names, addresses, and phone numbers. Only 14 of the phone numbers attached come a high volume the ads appeared in the ATF’s database.

The Trace and also The Verge referred to as every call number connected to 25 or more listings — practically 150 in total. Us spoke come 10 sellers altogether. Nobody of those sellers claimed they had actually a patent to deal firearms. Two recognized that they supplied Armslist to rotate a profit on sales, while the remainder reported making use of the site mainly to offload weapons in their personal collections. “Obviously if you get something and also you know deserve to get much more for it, you’re probably just going to turn around and also sell the again,” one user said.

All of the individuals we spoke with stated they vetted prospective buyers in part way, whether by analysis through the who online presence or simply obtaining a sense of the human while negotiating a sale. Yet only a handful stated they took customers to a licensed firearms dealer to do a lift check prior to making a sale.

One user from Florida, who phone number was connected to nearly 50 listings, said he no conduct background checks on sales. But he wished the there was an easy means to evaluation the background of a potential buyer. The user said that some world reaching out through Armslist didn’t pass a gut inspect for a firearm transfer.

“If who calls you up and says, ‘Hey, I’d choose to buy a gun,’ you should be able to check if the person can have a gun,” the Florida user said. “I desire to be a responsible gun owner.”

The variety of posts indigenous a user doesn’t necessarily enhance the number of gun sales, and the device couldn’t account for duplicate posts. However, for every user we spoke with, we shown that their phone numbers appeared in many non-duplicate write-ups on the site.

We explained our result to regulation enforcement public official to acquire a sense of whether this constituted evidence the sellers being “engaged in the business.”


A man was convicted of engaging in the business of selling guns without a license, while serving together an FBI agent

In a statement, an ATF spokesperson said the company looks in ~ each case to see “whether over there is adequate evidence of willful misconduct” to prove a violation. “The volume of sales is only one factor in assessing whether someone is unlawfully involved in the business, particularly since federal legislation expressly enables individuals to offer their an individual firearms collections without a license,” the spokesperson said. “Numerous additional factors, such as the will of the seller, have to be considered.”

To build a case, prosecutors must demonstrate that a human was willfully taking illegal activity — the a seller knew what they to be doing to be wrong and also flouted the legislation anyway.

“People that break this legislation should be prosecuted,” claims Thomas Chittum, assistant director of ar operations at the ATF. “But the a difficult law come prosecute because of the willfulness requirement and also because it’s very fact-intensive, and sometimes those truth aren’t easily available.”

Prosecutors have actually relied ~ above the volume of digital listings as evidence in past cases. In 2010, a guy was convicted of engaging in the company of selling guns without a license, if serving as an FBI agent. He had posted virtually 300 online gun ads over an ext than three years and collected an ext than $118,000 in firearm sales.

United claims Attorney because that the ar of Minnesota Erica mcdonald s stifled laughter once asked whether prosecutors can want to scrutinize a seller who had posted hundreds of listings. “Yeah,” she said.

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firearms are sold online in many ways. Retailers prefer Bass pro Shops, Brownells, or BudsGunShop.com market their weapons through agency websites, but buyers pick up the firearms from licensed dealers. There are also online marketplaces, like GunBroker and GunsAmerica, wherein the websites straight participate in the transaction in some method and allow for firearm transfers to circulation through federal patent holders. Climate there are places like Armslist that role as an online classified section tailored come guns, and also all transactions are done peer come peer.

The idea for Armslist developed in the summer the 2007, when Jonathan Gibbon to be a student at the united state Air pressure Academy, he told the website Human Events. He observed that Craigslist had banned pistol listings and thought he can step in to to fill the void. For this reason he associated with his classmate Brian Mancini in ~ a 4th of July party and they placed together a an easy version that the site.

Someone looking to offload a gun deserve to put up a listing ~ above Armslist in minutes and then merely wait because that prospective buyers to with out. Through a couple of clicks, sellers have the right to say where they’re selling their gun, the make and build, just how much it costs, and include an email attend to for queries. The procedure is as straightforward as purchase a chair ~ above Craigslist. Countless of the customers we spoke with stated the site’s simplicity is a large part of its draw.

When a the person who lives visits a listing, they can learn almost everything they’d want to know around their brand-new firearm. Up top, over there are photos of the gun native multiple angles, together with the manufacturer and also caliber size. They simply need to click on the “contact seller” button to relocate forward and complete the sale. In some cases, sellers will include a an individual cell number.

“It connect firearm owners and also enthusiasts, helping human being to uncover deals on firearms and also gear in their neighborhood area,” Gibbon told Human Events in 2010. “Imagine a gun show that never ever ends, yet you need an web connection.”


Looking for a pistol? maker gun and silencer? Rocket launcher? Armslist users room willing to market you one.

Since its founding, Armslist has gone on to end up being one of the most renowned gun heralding websites. The website offers nearly any kind of pistol you could imagine. In search of a pistol? an equipment gun and also silencer? Rocket launcher? Armslist users room willing to market you one.

Once you uncover what you’re looking for, just call the seller and also arrange a meetup to end up the transaction. The transfer can take place in a pistol store, home, or parking lot. There room no rules on whereby the handover demands to happen, as long as the timing works for both parties. The process is flexible sufficient for even the busiest online gun buyer.

The service has additionally become infamous for providing firearm access to human being prohibited native owning guns. In a paper published in 2019, researchers v the university of Minnesota scraped more than 4.9 million Armslist listings from the website and also found that less than 10 percent stated a lift check.

In 2011, Demetry Smirnov, a Russian immigrant life in Canda, illegally purchased a handgun top top Armslist and also later supplied it to murder a woman who spurned his romantic advances. Mohammod Youssuf Abdulazeez, a naturalized united state citizen who became a radicalized jihadist, supplied weapons gained through Armslist come kill 5 US organization members in Chattanooga, Tennessee in 2015. In 2018, a woman who provided Armslist come traffic guns was sentenced to 18 months in prison, but prior to her sentencing, one of her former firearms was offered to shoot a police officer in Boston. And also last year, commonwealth prosecutors brought a case against an Alabama resident who admitted to trafficking weapons acquired v Armslist to new York, California, and Mexico, after that watched a documentary film on gun trafficking in 2016.

Gun selling that bypasses the background examine system through exclusive transactions is typically called the gun show loophole — in this case, the gun show just wake up to be online. Over there are only a couple of restrictions: if the seller believes the the gun could be going come a person who is prohibited native owning a firearm or is from exterior of their state, they can not legally make the sale.

There room no regulations that clearly target the revenue of firearms over the internet, and also all digital sales are supposed to be held to the same legal standards as sales that happen at physical locations. Device guns, silencers, and also other firearms and accessories regulated under the National guns Act need fingerprinting and registration with the ATF. License is granted federal firearms dealers are compelled to carry out background checks and also maintain records of gun sales.

Advocates and also the US federal government have been examining the revenue of firearms and gun accessories v Armslist and other online websites because that years, but little has readjusted in terms of how they operate. In February 2019, the advocacy team Everytown for Gun safety and security contacted 150 sellers ~ above Armslist to buy firearms undercover. Much more than 65 percent of this sellers indicated that they would not need a background check to complete the sale. (Everytown’s charitable eight provides resources to The Trace.)

When the ATF finds someone that believes to it is in illegally offering guns, the agency might, in lieu of instant prosecution, send a warning letter demanding the human being stop selling. A warning letter have the right to lay the groundwork because that a instance showing a doubt knew what they to be doing to be over the line, Chittum says. It can likewise act together a deterrent for illegal gun sellers, when prosecutors can’t take every case.


Lytton claims that warning letters space a frequently used tactic throughout regulatory bodies, and also are a low-cost device to enforce federal standards, which can be especially valuable if the company doesn’t have actually the sources to mount a complete investigation. Yet they have actually an evident drawback: the receiver may pick to ignore them.

Around 2014, in one situation in Minnesota, a man named Eitan Feldman began buying and also reselling guns, frequently purchasing them native a registered dealer and also then flipping lock on Armslist, according to prosecutors. Firearms he’d marketed started transforming up in ~ crime scenes: police said they linked shots fired at a Minneapolis house to a pistol Feldman had actually bought a week earlier, and also during a marijuana trafficking investigation, recovered a revolver Feldman had actually bought 3 months before. The ATF executed a find warrant ~ above his house, finding shotguns the Feldman had actually legally purchased and then posted for sale top top Armslist, sometimes within days of purchase them.

In 2015, ATF agents personal handed Feldman a written warning speak he showed up to be a “dealer in firearms” under the law and informed him that he could confront criminal prosecution if he continued. Still, he maintained selling guns, flipping six semi-automatic pistols and also a semi-automatic rifle over the next couple of months, according to court records. “The reality that he maintained doing the after acquiring a letter from ATF was sort of a head scratcher,” states Assistant united state Attorney for the district of Minnesota Benjamin Bejar, that prosecuted the case.

Feldman was ultimately charged with illegally marketing firearms. “Most defendants whom ns sentence have not had the courtesy of having the federal government hand them a composed warning and also give castle a opportunity to stop,” the judge said during the hearing. He to be sentenced to 18 months’ imprisonment in 2016.

But even if it is illegal sellers room warned or not, the after-effects can be devastating.

Christopher Henderson and also John Phillips, follow to court records, made a service out that buying weapons in the South, where gun limitations are loose, and then reselling them increase north. The 2 would buy from sellers ~ above Armslist in Kentucky, rolling through the state in a white evade Challenger, then drive them back to Chicago. A broker working through Henderson and also Phillips would then resell the weapons, often on Facebook. Quickly after, the guns would rotate up at crime scenes.

In 2017, about nine miles away from whereby Commander Paul Bauer was killed, a 15-year-old boy called Xavier Soto was murdered. Prosecutors later connected the gun supplied in the killing — a Taurus pistol — come a purchase Henderson made with Armslist.

Both of the males were sentenced because that illegal sales. In ~ Henderson’s sentencing, Soto’s sister provided an emotional account of her brother’s short life.

“Our resides will never be the same,” she called the court with tears. “These alleged individuals supplied a weapon the was provided to killing a 15-year-old boy.”

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once she dialed 911 ~ an attack in October 2012, Zina Daniel Haughton said her husband, Radcliffe Haughton, had been violent for years. Police took her to a vacation Inn because that the night, her household later stated in court papers, yet he proved up in ~ her occupational the next day v a knife and also slashed the tires of she car.

Zina soon asked because that a restraining order against Radcliffe. She explained to a Wisconsin court: he had an explosive temper, threatening to throw mountain on she face. “I don’t desire to die,” she stated in a hearing. The judge granted the restraining order, i m sorry barred her husband native owning a gun.

Two work after her testimony, Radcliffe Haughton found and purchased a semi-automatic handgun top top Armslist indigenous a exclusive seller that didn’t operation a background check. Haughton do the buy from the front seat of the seller’s car, follow to the family, in a McDonald’s parking lot. The following day, he entered the suburban Milwaukee salon wherein Zina worked and also opened fire. He killed three people, consisting of Zina, before transforming the gun on himself.

In the aftermath, Armslist faced questions about its role. Had actually the agency effectively promoted a massive shooting? Yasmeen Daniel, Zina’s daughter, was at the spa once her mom was killed, and also filed suit versus Armslist in 2015, suggesting that the shooting could’ve to be stopped.

But the same law that shields major social media companies favor Facebook indigenous liability for terrorist content developed by your users additionally protects Armslist from being sued when negative actors usage their platform. Ar 230 that the communications Decency act is widely viewed as the law that do the modern internet possible, paving the means for web forums, social media, and also much more.


The plot protects website operator from being sued over what their users post. If someone writes a defamatory tweet, because that example, the person being defamed can’t sue Twitter for letting that happen.

”If you forced a patent for every tweet the gets posted, that would make Twitter impossible,” claims Grimmelmann, the Cornell professor. “It doesn’t make firearm sales impossible.”

Armslist relied on ar 230 for its defense in the Daniel case. The that company lawyers said that the website can’t be organized liable for unlawful sales. “Under this theory, Armslist could go in, look in ~ an ad, and say, ‘Oh, it’s an advertisement from the very same seller who illegally marketed 10 firearms in the situation that was famous last year, and also wow, it looks favor this advertisement is illegal,’” Grimmelmann says. ‘“We don’t care. We’re no going come touch it.’”

The lawsuit’s counter argument to be straightforward: Armslist wasn’t just a bystander ~ above the sidelines while sales happened, however a participant. The style of the site, the fit argued, enabled buyers come search especially for sellers who wouldn’t execute a background check, giving world who to be barred native owning guns an easy method to purchase one. The suit stated the website relied on a service model the “put guns in the hand of prohibition purchasers.”

The Daniel family’s fit has confronted mixed judgments native the courts. ~ one court dismissed the suit, one appeals court reversed the decision, permitting it come proceed. A second appeal, this time indigenous Armslist, elevated the situation to Wisconsin’s can be fried Court, which determined that Armslist was safeguarded under the communications Decency Act. Many recently, in November of critical year, the can be fried Court of the US decreased to hear the case, leaving in place the Wisconsin can be fried Court’s ruling.

The intersection of net speech law and also gun rights policy has actually scrambled part usual political divides. ~ the Wisconsin supreme Court decision, the Cato Institute, a libertarian think tank, said that transforms to 230 would cause “real and permanent” damages to the second Amendment. The nonprofit digital Frontier Foundation, which argues for civil civil liberties online, filed a brief in the instance in donate of Armslist, arguing that finding the website liable would certainly “severely curtail free expression online.”

The brief put the non-profit at odds with teams like the non-profit Cyber Civil legal rights Initiative, which argues that the law was intended to protect an excellent Samaritans, not to give cover to anyone that runs a website with third-party activity regardless the the consequences.


“The truth that Armslist is quiet in business after every the lawsuits it’s challenged is nice remarkable”

The Wisconsin can be fried Court disagreed, note in the decision that Armslist couldn’t be organized responsible even if the knew its website would be offered to rest the law. So long as a website deserve to be used for legal purposes, that didn’t issue that the was used for illegal activity, too.

Seen native one angle, the fight over Armslist looks favor a microcosm of the bigger war end Silicon valley power and accountability. Must Facebook, because that example, face results for failing to fact-check political ads? Both Republicans and Democrats have actually taken target at ar 230 recently, worried about the vast legal shield it offers the technology industry.

Eric Goldman, a professor in ~ the Santa Clara University college of legislation who has written around the services of 230, claimed the court the ruled against Armslist “just kind of went turn off the rails,” and he argues that chipping away at protections in the regulation will result in legal troubles for smaller sized sites.

”The an essential point of ar 230 was the Congress want sites to have actually the liberty to shot and police versus bad content, and also not are afraid that they would be liable because that anything lock miss,” Goldman says. “If they’re held to a 100 percent standard, climate they wouldn’t carry out it in ~ all.”

Some world might want to see Armslist go, the says, but other web page will also lose legitimate protections there is no 230. “The reality that Armslist is tho in service after all the lawsuits it’s faced is nice remarkable,” that says. “Without section 230 castle would’ve been gone a long time ago.”

The power of the legislation isn’t limitless, however. Federal prosecutors can shut down the website and also indict its owner under criminal fees if they thought the law was broken.

”One of the traditional tropes in the field is that ar 230 create a lawless zone,” Goldman says. “Anyone who claims that is factually wrong. Section 230 does not restrict commonwealth criminal prosecutions.”

But Mary anne Franks, president of the Cyber Civil legal rights Initiative, claims the legislation has successfully given a unique legal shield to online task that i will not ~ be safeguarded in physics space. “If it i will not ~ be speech if it was offline, it shouldn’t be speech if it’s online,” she argues.

”Punching somebody in the confront is no speech, even though it could be very expressive,” she says. “What section 230 has done is seduce courts into not make that sort of analysis. Instead, lock assume the if it’s happening virtual then the speech, and then they walk to the next step.”

Franks concerns whether the stakes have truly hit residence for defenders that a vast interpretation the the statute. “We have actually a case in Armslist i beg your pardon is yes, really a concern of life or death, and they don’t seem come think the that’s relevant,” she says.

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after ~ pleading guilty because that illegally selling firearms on Armslist, cutting board Caldwell had his sentencing hear in November 2018. If he confronted charges because that illegal pistol sales, the killing of commander Paul Bauer loomed over the proceedings. Caldwell’s defense team pleaded for probation, saying Caldwell had actually been through enough: his “digital heritage will affix him forever” with the murdered officer, his attorneys wrote to the court.

The beginning disagreed, and pushed for jail time. A prosecutor said the judge that Caldwell had actually disregarded a warning indigenous the ATF. They essential to do clear that was unacceptable. “Next time an ATF certified dealer delivers one of those warning letters, I want them likewise to have the ability to be in the position to deliver a story. ‘Look what happened to thomas Caldwell,’” the prosecutor said. To add emotion to your argument, the prosecution dubbed for the testimony that someone that knew Bauer well: Northeastern Illinois university Police Chief man Escalante.

Escalante flourished up v Bauer from the period of seven. The two went to the exact same grade school, the exact same college, and then join the Chicago Police room together. Escalante always thought Bauer to be the responsible one. In college, Bauer to be the significant student, Escalante said, while he was “a small bit an ext of a partier” and was “politely asked” not to return after 2 years. However as happy would have actually it, in 1986, they entered the police department in ~ one month of each other. “We invested the next 30 years chasing each other about the roadways of Chicago together Chicago police officers,” he said.

Escalante remembered gaining the call from an officer the knew ~ above the force. That told Escalante the he should sit down, and delivered the news the Bauer had been shot.

When Escalante learned the the gun had actually made its means from Wisconsin to Chicago with Armslist, he wasn’t surprised. Escalante climbed through the ranks of the Chicago Police Department and also was, for a time, that is interim superintendent. He’d seen the toll of illegal gun sales on the city. “It’s occurred too numerous times and now it happened to my great friend Paul and also it do not do it have,” that said.

At Caldwell’s sentencing, Escalante claimed he to be looking earlier at “every text, every email” with Bauer because that moments the made the laugh. That didn’t mention Armslist, however focused top top “accountability,” and “those that put the guns into the hands of those that commit the violence.”

Escalante stated that he’d struggled to say Bauer had actually died. “You die of old age, you dice of sickness, you die from accidents, yet when someone fires many rounds right into your body, that’s no dying,” he told the court, “that’s a murder.”

This story was released in partnership through The Trace, a non-profit newsroom covering gun violence.

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Update, 2:30PM ET, January 17th: In a declare sent following publication, an attorney for Armslist stated “courts have consistently ruled that Armslist.com drops squarely in ~ the ‘safe harbor’ of ar 230” and also that the agency both “fully complies” v all laws and regularly assists law enforcement. “The gist the the opposition to Armslist lies in opposition come the exclusive ownership the firearms,” the statement said.